It is proposed to examine in detail the main points of this type of retirement as an early retirement pension.

1. The duties of the employer and employees in the field of occupational safety and health

The complexity of modern production requires an integrated approach to health and safety. In these circumstances, the employer is obliged to provide:

the safety of its employees in the operation of buildings, structures, equipment, implementation of processes, etc .;

the acquisition from its own funds and the correct use of personal and collective protection of employees;

training on safe methods and techniques of work, instruction on occupational safety, verification of knowledge of labor protection requirements;

Certification of workplaces on working conditions with the subsequent certification of work on labor protection in the organization;

conduct their own expense mandatory preliminary and periodic medical examinations of employees, extraordinary medical examinations of employees in accordance with medical recommendations for preserving their place of work (position) and average earnings at the time of the passage of these medical examinations;

preventing workers to perform their work duties without passing the mandatory medical examinations, as well as in the case of medical contraindications;

to inform employees of the conditions and safety in the workplace, on the existing health risks and believe them compensation and personal protective equipment;

provision of public authorities OSH management bodies of state supervision and control over the observance of labor protection requirements of the information and documents required for the exercise of their powers;

the adoption of measures to prevent accidents, save lives and health of workers in the event of such situations, including first-aid;

investigation of accidents at work and occupational diseases;

sanitary, medical and preventive care workers in accordance with national labor protection requirements;

unhindered access of officials of public safety management, supervision and control over compliance with labor protection authorities of the RF Social Insurance Fund, as well as representatives of public control in order to conduct inspections of working conditions and safety in the organization and investigation of accidents at work and occupational diseases ;

implementation of regulations of officials of state supervision and control over the observance of labor protection requirements and consideration of public oversight bodies of representations in the terms established by law;

compulsory social insurance against industrial accidents and occupational diseases, and others.

In accordance with the law, the responsibility for health and safety at the enterprise bears the employer, as well as all officials and, above all, - heads of departments.

In accordance with Article 214 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, the employee must:

abide by the rules and instructions on labor protection;

correctly apply the collective and individual protection;

place to provide first aid training to victims of an accident, instruction on safe working methods, mandatory preliminary and periodic medical examinations;

report forthwith to their immediate supervisor of any accident which occurred in the production of signs of occupational disease, as well as a situation which poses a threat to human life or health.

2. Early pension benefits under Lists №1 and №2 of persons working in hazardous working conditions. Terms of examples of occupations and positions of these lists

The main condition for the purpose of early old age retirement pension due to the special working conditions is a permanent employment in full-time employment in jobs in professions and positions provided Listings.

List number 1 includes a list of professions, positions and qualifications of those who are engaged in jobs with hazardous working conditions, in hot shops.

List number 2 includes a list of professions, positions and qualifications of those who are engaged in jobs with poor working conditions.

Lists compiled by kind of production, therefore, the right to early pension depends on the order in which the production is not available or that person, and apply to employees regardless of organizational and legal forms and forms of ownership.

And in the first and second lists have sections, which are called "general trade".

These jobs do not have to confirm the additional help that is really working in hazardous work. If the workbook is written "battery attendant" and the man worked in this specialty for 12 years and 6 months, he will be entitled to early retirement, provided for a definition of general insurance and a certain age.

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If the employee works combines giving and not giving the right to early pension benefits (for example, work Battery attendant and mechanic), for purpose of early old age retirement pension it is necessary to document employment as a battery attendant at least 80% of the time.

Such documents may be consolidated normalization card photos of the day, working time balance calculations, work orders, standardized building, and so on. D.

If the workbook is written "bakelitchik-impregnators," that this work is necessary to confirm an additional certificate that reflects the work process. The note pointed out that the work actually performed continuously, full-time, he was busy in the impregnation of parts and products compositions containing harmful substances are below the third class of danger.

In the list there is the position of the "master of construction and mounting works", and the workbook is written simply "master". This profession also need to verify the relevant documents: certificate, job description or acts of acceptance facilities in operation, which is signed by that particular artist.

Schedule 2 provides the position number "welder", engaged in the cutting and manual welding, semi-automatic machines, as well as the automatic machines using the flux containing harmful substances are below the third class of danger.

In this case, electric and engaged in the automatic welding is required to confirm the use of fluxes containing harmful substances are below the third class of danger. All other electric and retirement benefits are provided without any additional conditions.

If an employee for employment records means to work in the position of "welder", but there are no documents about the nature of the work, to determine the right to early appointment of old-age labor is sufficient confirmation of the pension that the organization, in which he was engaged, does not automatically apply machinery or technology implemented by the organization of activities (production, operations) might not perform other welding, in addition to the manual.

If welding is done automatically, it is necessary to confirm execution of works with the use of flux, containing harmful substances are below the third class of danger.

In the absence of documentary evidence of the nature of the work it will be denied appointment early old age retirement pension.

In the future, early retirement pensions will be appointed according to a personalized account, so about their pension rights every care must be taken in advance (preferably 6 months prior to the onset of the right to a pension).

From time to time check the records that are entered in the work book: Are they appropriate for your work? Do all the necessary stamps and signatures it cost?

If necessary, please be appropriate certificate, specifying the special nature of the work performed or the working conditions necessary for the purpose of early retirement.

If we are talking about the "northern" pensions, it is necessary to see whether there is in the workbook information about the location of the organization, in their absence will also need appropriate information.

3. Ionizing radiation. Effect on the body. Security methods

Radiation (from the Latin radiatio - radiation) is characterized by radiant energy. Ionizing radiation (IR) flows is called particles and electromagnetic rays produced in nuclear transformations, i.e. as a result of radioactive decay. The most common species of ionizing radiation such as X-ray and gamma-ray fluxes of alpha particles, electrons, neutrons and protons. Ionizing radiation directly or indirectly causes the ionization of the medium, ie, formation of charged atoms or molecules - ions.

AI sources may be natural or artificial radioactive substance, various kinds of nuclear engineering installation, medicines, numerous control and measuring device (testing of metals, quality control of welded joints). They are also used in agriculture, geological exploration, with anti-static electricity and others.

Surveyors can collide with ionizing radiation while performing work on the particle accelerators (synchrotrons, synchrotrons, cyclotrons), and also in nuclear power plants, uranium mines and others.

Alpha particles are positively charged nuclei of helium atoms. These particles emitted during radioactive decay of certain elements with a large atomic number, mainly transuranic elements with an atomic number over 92. Alpha particles extend rectilinearly in media at a rate of about 20 thousand. Km / s, creating in its path high ionization density. Alpha particles, having a large mass, quickly lose their energy and therefore have little mileage: air - 20-110 mm in biological tissues - 30-150 mm, in aluminum - 10-69 mm.

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Beta particles - a stream of electrons or positrons having more penetrating ionizing and less power than alpha particles. They occur in the nuclei of atoms in the radioactive decay and immediately emitted therefrom at a speed close to the speed of light. Run at medium energies of beta particles in the air is several meters in water - 2.1 cm, in human tissues - about 1 cm, metals - 1 mm.

X-ray radiation is electromagnetic radiation of high frequency and short wavelength that occurs when a material is bombarded electron flux. The most important property of X-rays is its great penetrating power. X-rays may appear in x-ray tubes, electron microscopes, high-power generators, rectifying tubes, cathode ray tubes, and others.

Gamma radiation refers to electromagnetic radiation and represents a stream of photon energy propagating speed of light. They have a shorter wavelength than X-rays. Gamma radiation passes freely through the human body and other materials without appreciable attenuation and can create secondary and scattered radiation in the media, through which passes. The intensity of gamma radiation decreases inversely with the square of the distance from the point source.

Neutron radiation - a stream of neutral particles. These particles are emitted from the nuclei of atoms with some nuclear reactions, particularly in reactions of nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium. Because neutrons have no electrical charge, neutron radiation has a high penetrating power. Depending on the kinetic energy of the neutrons are divided into fast, ultra-fast, intermediate, and slow heat. Neutron radiation is produced when the charged particle accelerators and reactors, forming the powerful streams of fast and thermal neutrons. A distinctive feature of the neutron radiation is an ability to convert atoms stable elements into their radioactive isotopes, which dramatically increases the danger of neutron irradiation.

Units radioactivity and irradiation doses. Substances capable of generating ionizing radiation differ activity (A), i.e. number of radioactive transformations per unit time. The SI unit of activity taken one nuclear transformation per second (decay / sec). This unit is called the becquerel (Bq). Extrasystemic unit of activity is curies (Ci) equal to the activity of the nuclide in which there is 3.7 × 1010 decay events per second, i.e.,

Ki = 3.7 · 1010Bk.

Unit of activity corresponds to the activity of 1 Ci r radium (Ra).

In order to characterize the notion of ionizing radiation exposure doses. There are three radiation dose: absorbed, equivalent and exposure.

The extent and form of the radial depth of lesions developing among biological objects when exposed to ionizing radiation, primarily dependent on the magnitude of absorbed radiation energy or the absorbed dose (Dpogl).

The absorbed dose - the energy absorbed by a unit mass of irradiated material.

Per unit of absorbed radiation dose received gray (Gy), measured as joules per kilogram (J / kg). Respectively

Gy = 1 J / kg.

The Radiobiology and Radiation Hygiene Widely used off-system unit of absorbed dose - rad. Glad - is such absorbed dose at which the amount of absorbed energy in 1g of any substance is 100 erg regardless of the type and energy of radiation. Proportionality warming and pleased as follows:

Gy = 100 rad.

Due to the fact that the same species of different absorbed dose of ionizing radiation is in the unit of biological tissue mass different biological effects, the concept of equivalent doses administered (Dekv) which is defined as the product of the absorbed dose to the average quality factor acting types of ionizing radiation.

The quality factor (Kkach) characterizes the dependence of adverse biological consequences of human exposure to ionizing radiation on the ability of various types of transfer of energy irradiated medium.

In essence, the biological effects caused by any of ionizing radiation, compared with the effect of X-ray and gamma radiation.

As an equivalent dose units in SI received sievert (Sv). Sievert - equivalent dose of any type of ionizing radiation absorbed by 1 kg of biological tissue and bringing the same biological effect (damage) as the absorbed photon radiation dose of 1 Gy. There is also an off-system unit of an equivalent dose of ionizing radiation - rem (roentgen equivalent). In this case, the proportionality of the following:

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Dekv = Dpogl · Kkach or 1 Sv = 1 Gy · Kkach; 1 Sv = 100 rad · Kkach = 100 rem.

To estimate the equivalent dose received by a group of people (staff of the object of the national economy, the residents of the settlement, etc.), use the concept of collective dose equivalent (Dekv.k.) - is the average dose to the population, multiplied by the population (in man- sievert).

The concept of the exposure dose (Deksp) serves to characterize the X-ray and gamma-radiation and determines air ionization measure under the action of these beams. It is equal to the photon radiation dose at which a 1 kg Outside arise ions bearing electric charge into one pendant (Cl).

Accordingly Deksp = CL / CG.

Common Units exposure dose of X-ray and gamma radiation is X-ray (P).

In this case, the proportionality of the following:

P = 2,58 · 10-4 C / kg or 1 C / kg = 3.88 x 103 P.

Absorbed, equivalent and exposure dose, referenced to the unit of time, are called power appropriate doses.

for example

. Power absorbed dose (Rpogl) - Gy / s or rad / s.

. Equivalent dose (Rekv) - Sv / s or rem / s.

Exposure dose (Reksp) - C / (kg · s) or F / sec.

The following relations can be used to simplify the evaluation of uniformity of ionizing radiation information.

. 1 Gy = 100 rem = 100 P = 100 rad = 1 Sv (up to 10-15%);

. contamination density of 1 Ci / m2 of exposure dose equivalent to 10 R / h, or the exposure dose of ionizing radiation 1 R / hr corresponds contamination 10 uCi / cm2.

There are two kinds of effects on the body effect of ionizing radiation: the somatic and genetic. When somatic effects the consequences manifest themselves in the irradiated, a genetic - his offspring. Systemic effects may be early or distant. Early occur in a period of several minutes up to 30-60 days after irradiation. These include redness and peeling of the skin, cataract eye, defeat of the hematopoietic system, radiation sickness, death. Distant somatic effects appear months or years after exposure in the form of persistent changes in the skin, malignancies, reduced immunity, reduced life expectancy.

When studying the effect of radiation on the body have been identified following features:

. High efficiency energy absorbed, even small amounts of it can cause profound biological changes in the body.

. A hidden (incubation) period manifestations effects of ionizing radiation.

. Action on small doses can stack or pile.

. Genetic effects - effects on offspring.

. Various organs of a living organism are its sensitivity to radiation.

. Not every organism (person) as a whole are equally responsive to radiation.

. Irradiation depends on the impact frequency. When the same dose of radiation harmful effects will be smaller than the fractional it is received in time.

Ionizing radiation can affect the body as in the outer (especially X-ray and gamma radiation), and at the inner (especially alpha particles) irradiation. Internal exposure occurs by ingestion of the body through the lungs, skin and digestive organs of ionizing radiation sources. Internal exposure is more dangerous than external, have been trapped inside the IRS is subjected to continuous irradiation does not protected internal organs.

Under the influence of ionizing radiation water being part of the human body, is cleaved and the formation of ions with different charges. The resulting free radicals and oxidizing agents interact with the molecules of the organic substances tissue oxidizing and destroying it. Disturbed metabolism. There are changes in the blood - reduces the level of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and neutrophils. The defeat of the blood destroys the human immune system and lead to infectious complications.

Local lesions are characterized by radiation skin burns and mucous membranes. In severe burns are formed swellings, bubbles may dying tissue (necrosis).

Deadly absorbed dose for the individual body parts of the following:

head - 20 Gy;

lower abdomen - 50 Gy;

chest -100 Gy;

limbs - 200 Gy.

Upon irradiation doses, 100-1000 times higher than a lethal dose, a person can die during exposure ( "death under the ray").

Depending on the type of ionizing radiation can be different protection measures: reducing exposure time, increase the distance from the sources of ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation barrier, sealing of ionizing radiation sources, equipment, and design of protective equipment, the organization of radiation monitoring, hygiene and sanitation measures.



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