At the beginning of the V century BC in the town of Paestum (Greek colony, south of Italy), was built the temple of the goddess Hera, he is striking in its beauty. Temple of Hera since ancient times is considered a holy place. Hence the name of the Sanctuary of the goddess Hera.+
Gera - in the mythology of the ancient Greeks, was considered the most powerful, the supreme goddess of Olympus, Zeus's wife, the wife of the Gods God. Hera called the patroness of marriage, guarding the mother during childbirth.+
In honor of the goddess in Greece it was built the largest and most magnificent temple of the time - the Temple of the goddess Hera. Archaeologists have several periods of the creation of the temple. The construction of the temple began in 570-560 BC, and later construction resumed in the VII century.+
The temple was built and refined at the same time simple, its size was very large. Thanks to the famous temple town, he was considered one of the wealthiest cities of the time.+
During the construction of the temple was used mainly hard limestone, which had a golden color.+
Temple consisted of 155 columns in the Ionic style. Colonnade supported overlap temple towering based consisting of three stages. They surrounded the temple 6 columns on the facade and 13 with the longitudinal sides. The space inside the temple was divided into three parts bunk colonnade.+
Over time, the temple was destroyed, now preserved part of one column, its width is 108.63 meters and width of 55.16.+
The mythology of the great goddess Hera doellinskoy. In Greece, its main sanctuary located on the island of Samos and in Argos, but Arcadians argued that their cult of Hera is the oldest and carried him up to the time of appearance of their ancestral lands Pelasgians.
1. The ancient image of Hera
Hera was the goddess of doellinskoy great. In Greece, its main sanctuary located on the island of Samos and in Argos, but Arcadians argued that their cult of Hera is the oldest and carried him up to the time of appearance of their ancestral lands Pelasgians. Forced marriage of Hera imprinted capture Mycenaean Greece and the overthrow of Hera as the supreme deity in both countries. Knossos was captured by the Greeks, apparently, twice, around 1700 BC and in 1400 BC A century later fell under the rule of the Achaeans of Mycenae. Zeus could portray as a cuckoo, because he seems to throw all the other deities of the nest, and because he assumed the scepter of Hera, the pommel of which was designed as a cuckoo. Gilded figurines of nude goddesses argivyanki-cuckoo were found at Mycenae; there was discovered a gilded model of the temple, crowned with the cuckoo. On the famous Cretan sarcophagus from Agia Triada shows a double ax, on which sits a cuckoo.
"Seasons were her nurses" - this is one way to characterize the goddess Hera as the calendar year. That is why it shows a cuckoo scepter symbolizing the spring, and in her left hand she holds a ripe pomegranate, ripening in late autumn and symbolizing the death of the year.
In Argos, the famous statue of the goddess Hera depicts sitting on a throne of gold and ivory. The story of how it was chained to the throne, could arise in connection with the Greek custom of chaining statues of the gods, "so they do not run away." If the city loses an ancient statue of the patron god or goddess to him, it can generally be left without divine protection. That is why the Romans practiced what is politely called "smanivaniem" gods in Rome, and to the epoch of the empire, this city resembles galoche nest cluttered stolen in different cities with statues of gods and goddesses.
2. The wedding of Hera and Zeus
Hera, the daughter of Crohn's and Rhea, was born on the island of Samos or, some say, at Argos. She raised as her son Temen Pelasgians in Arcadia. Seasons were her nurses. After the overthrow of Crohn's her twin brother Zeus began to solicit her love of Knossos on Crete, or, as some say, on Mount Fornax, which is now called Kukushkina mountain in Argolis, where he was first unsuccessfully courted her. Hera Zeus took pity on only when he took the form of colorful cuckoo that Hera gently pressed against his chest. But as soon as she did, Zeus took his true colors, and took it. Humiliated Hera was forced to marry him.
On their wedding day all the gods sent their gifts. Mother Earth gave Hera a tree with golden apples, which was later guarded by the Hesperides in the garden of Hera on Mount Atlas.
Wedding night Hera and Zeus on the island most lasted for three hundred years, perhaps because the sacred year Samians (as well as the Etruscans) consisted of ten thirty-day months since January and February were absent, as in the myth of every day up to a year. It is possible that at this point Myth alludes to the fact that the Greeks took three hundred years to establish monogamy among the tribes who worshiped Hera.
3. Conflict between Hero and Zeus.
Only Zeus - the father of the heavens - was subservient lightning, and only the fear of its deadly force did obey him grumpy and absurd family, is located on Mount Olympus. Zeus defined the way of celestial bodies, is established by law, to administer oaths and prophesied. Therefore, he did not suffer from lack of any power over, or under the earth, and his wife Hera was not inferior to him in only one: any man or beast, she could, if desired, to award the gift of prophecy.
Zeus and Hera are constantly fighting. In retaliation for his frequent adultery often humiliated Hera Zeus, resorting to deceit. And though he could tell her their secrets and sometimes even enjoyed her advice, full of confidence in the Hera Zeus has not appeared. Hera knew that, apply it husband too seriously hurt, he will not fail to run in it by lightning, so she preferred the evil scheming in relation, for example, with the birth of Hercules, and sometimes borrowed Aphrodite belt to ignite in her husband passion and thus weaken his will.
But the day came when Zeus's pride and petulance became so intolerable that Hera, Poseidon, Apollo and the other Olympians, except Hestia, suddenly surrounded him, sleeping, and "Bound" rawhide straps hundred knots, so that he could not move. He threatened them with instant death, but in response to the gods, who prudently hid away his lightning only insulting laugh. When they were already celebrating their victory and vigorously debated someone to be the successor of Zeus, Nereid named Thetis, foreseeing infighting on Olympus, he rushed in search storukih Briareya who, acting with all hands at once, quickly untied the straps and freed his master.
As the head of the conspiracy was Hera, Zeus with gold bracelets hung her wrists to the sky, and the feet tied anvil. While all the gods were deeply outraged by this act of Zeus, none of them dared to come to the rescue Hera, despite her plaintive cries. Eventually, Zeus promised to release her if all the gods will give the oath is no longer rebel against him. With great reluctance, each of the gods gave this oath. Zeus punished Poseidon and Apollo by sending them slaves to the king Laomedon for whom they built the city of Troy. The other gods were pardoned how to act under duress.
Marital relationship between Zeus and Hero reflect the real relationship, characteristic of barbarous Dorian era. Then the women lost their role in magical rites, with the exception of the prophecies, and gradually they begin to look like a thing.