In many tourists Turkey or associated with the beaches of Antalya, and bursting with treats tables in All inclusive or visit Bazaar in Istanbul. But Turkey can surprise even seasoned travelers, offering to visit with unique geographical and historical point of view place.
In this article we would like to offer the curious reader to make a virtual journey to the Gallipoli Peninsula, which is located in Turkey.
Gallipoli peninsula stretches in a narrow strip along the Dardanelles.
Peninsula length is about 90 km and a width of 20 kilometers.
The peninsula has a tectonic origin, seismic line passes through the Strait of Dardanelsky.
The Gallipoli Peninsula is made up of a plurality of ridges and mountain tops.
Throughout the peninsula almost nowhere valleys protected from the constant and strong north easterly winds. The mountains are covered with thickets of wild rose, juniper. It would seem that can attract tourists to the region, one strand of which is washed by the Aegean Sea, and the other - the Sea of Marmara.
What to see.
In bygone times, the peninsula was a rich edge, the center of life in the city of Gallipoli. Currently, only the ruins of old buildings testify to the former greatness and wealth.
Gallipoli land keeps secrets of many eras.
Geographical location of the Gallipoli peninsula contributed to the fact that life originated in this region very soon. Dardanelles, which washes the coast of the peninsula proved crucial passage for the main trade routes of the ancient world. Originally, through the Dardanelles was a famous trade route "Baltic amber" or as it is called in Russian chronicles "great waterway from the Vikings to the Greeks", which contributed to the later development of the first Russian state entities.
During the heroic Greece, Gallipoli Peninsula appeared in myths such as the abduction of Europa, the Argonauts. In Homer's poem of Troy Gallipoli peninsula and the Dardanelles are crucial.
The very legend of Troy is a reflection of real events of that time, when between the European and Asian shores of the Aegean Sea was a struggle for the possession of the Strait and, indeed, for the control of the trade routes that passed through the Dardanelles.
This struggle for Mercantile Strait was decorated with a beautiful legend of Helen of Troy.
Troy, located on the shores of the most important commercial artery was of strategic importance. Greeks with the European shores of the Aegean Sea was necessary conquest of Troy, the richest city of the time. The tragic events connected with the conquest of Troy, we know thanks to Homer and other myths, which have reached our days.
There are many versions and variants of the details in the description of those fatal events, but the basic gist is common to all. Helen, wife of Menelaus of Sparta, succumbed to the entreaties of Paris, and when her husband left for Crete, Elena, grabbing the jewels and slaves running to Troy.
Even if Elena had never existed, it should have been invented. The image of the elusive female beauty - this is one of the eternal imagination of mankind, and to avoid enraging the gods and do not cause envy people such beauty should be very unhappy and did not bring happiness to others. In these myths, the perfect image of the tragic fate of thousands of years have attracted the attention of mankind, keeping his sad beauty and charm.
End of the story is known to all, thanks to the efforts of Hollywood masters. Troy has been conquered, and the Greeks gained control of the trade routes. The Greeks started to brisk business, and eventually covered the shores of the Black Sea, its colonies: Olbia (near modern Odessa), Panticapaeum (now Kerch), Tiras, Hersonissos (near modern Sevastopol), Phanagoria (near Taman), far Tanais (Don) and many others.
As Recalling those great battles and the times to the right of the Gallipoli Peninsula through the Strait of Dardanelles in Canakkale, is a monument depicting the Trojan horse.
Ruins of buildings, the Crusades.
In the eleventh century on the Gallipoli peninsula settled Crusaders, who tried to stop in the Strait of militant Islam. But the Crusaders have brought in this region more trouble than security. Forming on the peninsula Latin kingdom, the Crusaders gave the right to trade and control over the Strait of them friendly Venetian merchants. Ruins of trading posts on the shores of the peninsula are a reminder of this period of life of the region.
Kervan Saray and Alma Mater Dervishes.
In the middle of the fourteenth century the Ottomans conquered the peninsula. Monuments of this landing is a pillar standing on a rock near the shore - at the place where he was killed by the Turks first landed, and standing at the top of the camp mosque - on the site of the first Turkish camp.
After the conquest of Gallipoli, Ottoman expansion has spread to the entire Balkan Peninsula. Dardanelles became internal territories of the Ottoman Empire. It was a period of calm, which contributed to the welfare of the region. Monument of the era in Gallipoli is Kervan Saray was built around the middle of the XV century. As well as the mosque in Teke - Monastery "whirling dervishes", which Order was born here and.
The next historical period that has left an indelible mark on the Gallipoli peninsula - is the Crimean War in 1854-1855. Here Ottomans organized a camp for prisoners of war Russian tsarist army, some of which ended his life in exile, he was buried on the Gallipoli Peninsula.
World War I.
In June 1912 the Gallipoli peninsula has been hit by the terrible earthquake. At the same time, due to the liberation war in the Balkans, on the peninsula it has accumulated up to 200 thousands of Muslims fleeing the Serbs and Bulgarians. These refugees looted local Christians and destroyed their homes and gardens.
In 1914-1918, the indigenous Greek population was expelled in the peninsula, and their houses, too, were subjected to plunder and destruction.
From the bombing of Allied Allied Gallipoli also suffered. During the First World War, the peninsula was the last home of many of the dead soldiers of the Entente armies. Each country has carefully supported the burial places of their citizens.
The tragedy of the Russian Army.
But the most tragic monument to the Gallipoli Peninsula is a monument erected manually Russian wars in honor of fallen soldiers and officers of the Imperial Army at Gallipoli during the evacuation of the civil war. On a large plot of land that was allotted under Russian Cemetery is a monument built by the First Army Corps of the Imperial Army. The history of this monument is also sad and heroic, as the fate of displaced persons.
In 1921, on November 22 in Gallipoli arrived first echelons of the 1st Artillery Corps of the Imperial Russian Army. While the court were still under the yellow quarantine flag, the corps commander, General Kutepov came ashore, to solve the problem of accommodation of people. A cursory inspection of the city destroyed by an earthquake, looters, as well as the bombing in the last war showed that accommodate refugees nowhere.
At the site, allocated for Russian camp was empty field covered with mud.
Hundreds of exhausted from a long stay in crowded holds (on some steamers number of passengers exceeded 5000 people), the sick and hungry people were without shelter under rainy and cold November air.
With each arriving steamer number of refugees grew, and the problem of accommodation of people became catastrophic.
In difficult conditions, without readily available materials and tools, the soldiers and officers of the Imperial Army, as well as their families, have begun in the arrangement of the camps. In the case were the branches of trees, rocks, grass and even algae. People have built tents and dug dugout. The intolerable conditions people were forced to live and wait to decide their fate, and they will continue to be deported: those in Bulgaria who are in Serbia, who in Constantinople. Needless to say that it was very difficult to survive in such conditions. Epidemic, hard work, malnutrition leads to mass deaths. Russian first buried in the Greek cemetery. But soon the evacuation of victims from the crazy class hatred former compatriots were so many that a separate plot of land for the cemetery was selected for the Russian.
In November 1921, after a year's stay in a foreign country, the survivors of the Royal Army garrisons reported that in the near future Russian will be transported to the Balkan countries. People cheered if he had not been behind a year of hardship, hunger, hardship. But before leaving the Gallipoli peninsula, it was decided to perpetuate the memory of the dead for the worst year of the Russian people.
Russian soldiers ... ..
our brothers, unable to withstand the harsh conditions
of evacuation and life in exile,
found here his untimely death.
For worthy of perpetuating
their memory erect a monument in our cemetery.
Resurrect the tradition of antiquity,
when one of the survivors of soldiers
brought in his helmet land on the mass grave,
which grew stately mound ...
And let the mound, we created off the coast of
the Dardanelles, for many years to retain the front
face of the world the memory of the Russian heroes of
General Kutepov .
On this call all responded. Soldiers and officers were carrying stones, women and children sand tray. Local people helped with the cement, though of poor quality. Everyone wanted to contribute to the construction of the monument and thereby honor the memory of the victims of people who had to leave their native lands.
Today, through the Dardanelles Strait ferries ply every half hour. To get from the mainland to the Gallipoli Peninsula and labor is not back. A sightseeing tour can be combined with a beach holiday. Great choice of hotels in different price categories, curative air of mountain pine forests also have to visit the Gallipoli peninsula.
Until we meet again, with respect, Elena.