Hemophilia relates to a non-contagious disease and is characterized by a tendency to bleeding and bleeding that arise spontaneously or lung injuries. Symptoms of the disease is the sharp deceleration of blood clotting for bruises, cuts, injections and other injuries.
Hemophilia treatment consists in carrying out hemostasis, as well as surgical techniques associated with the transfusion of fresh blood or lyophilized plasma. For the prevention of the disease is not permitted closely related breeding dogs.
Hemophilia - hereditary blood disease, in violation of the plasma clotting enzyme level. We isolated human hemophilia A, B, C, D and E. In animals, preferably dogs, pigs and horses, are very rare hemophilia A, B and C.
Hemophilia A - a hereditary disease caused by a violation of synthesis antihemophilic globulin or Factor VIII. Hemophilia A is inherited recessive type as an X-linked trait. It occurs mostly in males, born from mothers - carriers of the mutant gene. The disease is inherited virtually healthy daughters born to mothers carriers of the mutant gene. However, females are born from hemophiliac father and mother suffer from hemophilia A. It is possible lifetime mutation under the influence of an extremely adverse etiological factors of the environment. In these cases, it may manifest hereditary hemophilia.
Pathogenesis . The pathogenesis of the disease is functional deficiency of factor VIII, which causes a sharp deceleration of blood coagulation. The expressed Factor VIII deficiency, the disease is more severe.
Scheme pathogenesis of hemophilia A is: deficiency of factor VIII (antihemophilic globulin A) → slowing formation of prothrombin thromboplastin → → → thrombin of fibrinogen → fibrin clot retraction → amplification → bleeding.
Symptoms. The main clinical signs of disease - bleeding, which occurs at an early age and young manifested life. In animals without reason there are bleeding under the skin, muscles and joints. Hemorrhage often have the character of hematomas localized in the subcutaneous tissue between the muscles, fascia, behind the peritoneum. They are painful, stressful, some fluctuate. Cellulitis may be complicated by suppuration, necrosis of tissue compression of the larynx and trachea. In patients with marked nasal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal and other bleeding. It is often small enough tissue damage to severe bleeding occurred. Blood clotting sharp slowdown. In healthy animals, the duration of the horses blood clotting from 10 to 20 minutes, in cattle - from 8 to 10 minutes in pigs - from 2 to 10 minutes, at 2-5min dogs. Patients animal blood clotting is delayed at the clock as a secondary phenomenon develops chronic anemia with characteristic features.
Diagnosis. The diagnosis is based on establishing a sign of slowing down blood clotting, bleeding reinforced. If possible, determine the degree of activity of a coagulation factor VIII.
Differentiation disease are due to thrombocytopenia, hypovitaminosis K, C, other forms of hemophilia.
Treatment . It is aimed primarily at improving the content of Factor VIII blood. For this purpose, the most effective fresh or fresh frozen plasma of blood. It is administered intravenously in daily doses of: large animals 2-6ml / kg (1-3l), small 10-5ml / kg (250-500ml). Compatible blood transfusion is less efficient in comparison with the plasma.
Applied means facilitating hemostasis. Intravenously administered 10% calcium chloride solution: horses, KRS- 40-50mg / kg, dogs -40-50mg / kg 1 time a day with an interval of 48 hours;
10% calcium gluconate solution: horses, KRS- 25-30mg / kg dogs - 60-70mg / kg one or more times a day; menadione, ascorbic acid, adrenaline, aminocaproic acid, gelatin, polyglukin, gemovinil.
Vikasol intramuscularly small animals 1-3ml, into horses, cattle - 0,2-0,4mg / kg dogs - 1-1,5mg / kg 2-3 times a day. Ascorbic acid inwardly horses and KRS- 1,5-2mg / kg, dogs -2-3 mg / kg 1 time a day or intravenously 5% solution 0,2-0,3mg / kg together with 20-40% glucose solution.
Epinephrine solution (1: 1000) was added at internal and external bleeding (horses and cattle 1-3ml intravenously, subcutaneously 2-5ml; 0,2-0,5ml dogs intravenously). When intravenous epinephrine solution diluted in glucose solution or isotonic sodium chloride solution of 1:10. You can not use epinephrine for pulmonary bleeding, because it dilates blood vessels of the lungs.
Hemostatic effect has aminocaproic acid hydrochloride: it is administered intravenously in a 5-10% solution 0,03-0,10g / kg body weight or produce inwardly 0,05-0,10mg / kg; 3-10% solution (pH 7.0) was injected subcutaneously in the same dose.
To stop bleeding local thrombin used: powder is dissolved before using isotonic sodium chloride solution.
Hemostatic sponge is applied to the dried surface of the wound and pressed with gauze; after 2-3 minutes remove the towel and sponge is left in the wound. When large amounts of blood loss intravenously or subcutaneously, intraperitoneally administered isotonic sodium chloride solution, Ringer-Locke solution, 5% glucose solution with ascorbic acid polyglukin, reopoligljukin with glucose (horses cattle and 8-10ml / kg, dogs 15-20ml / kg per day).
Sick animals contain at full rations with a sufficient amount of energy, protein, minerals and vitamins. Assign agents that stimulate hematopoiesis: iron preparations (glycerophosphate, ferropleks, ferrokal, iron lactate), cobalt, copper, hepatoprotectors, vitogepat, silipar), vitamins B12, B6.
Preventive herbal medicine . Hemostatic properties are tyasyachelistnik, nettle, common plantain et al.
Infusion yarrow prepared: 20g chopped herbs pour water at room temperature, boiled for 15min, insist without interfering 45min, filtered. Infusion store no more than 3 days. The animals are allowed inside at approximately 0,3ml / kg of body weight three times a day.
The infusion of nettle prepare: a tablespoon of crushed leaves pour 200 ml boiling water, insist 10 minutes, cool and filter. Give the animal inside approximately by 0,3ml / kg body weight 3 times per day.
Prevention. Do not allow the mating of animals with burdening inheritance, protect animals from injury.
Hemophilia B - a hereditary disease caused by a violation of synthesis of factor IX (antihemophilic globulinV).
The disease is transmitted by recessive trait, as well as hemophilia A, is linked to X - chromosome.
Pathogenesis. GlobulinV Antihemophilic Factor or Christmas - kompanent plasma thromboplastin involved in the formation of plasma thromboplastin, as a catalyst. Reducing the functional activity of factor IX, associated with the inhibition of its synthesis, or production of defective molecules leads to slow down blood clotting via the intrinsic pathway. This leads to the formation of a breach
Secondary coagulation tubes and hence to increased bleeding.
Symptoms. Symptoms of hemophilia A and hemophilia B are identical.
Treatment . Displaying intravenous drip of fresh frozen plasma of blood at a dose of 10-15ml / kg body weight of the animal 1 time per day. The introduction of plasma factor IX can increase to a level sufficient for the relief of acute hemarthrosis (bleeding into the joint cavity) and postravmatichesih bleeding.
Treatment of Hemophilia B is not fundamentally different from the above-described treatment of hemophilia A.
Hemophilia C - a hereditary disease of animals of both sexes, due to decreased activity of factor XI. Inherited disease in an autosomal dominant manner.
Pathogenesis. At deficiency of factor XI (antihemophilic globulin C) - plasma thromboplastin precursor of thrombin formation occurs delay fibrin and eventually retraction (seal) of a blood clot, increasing bleeding. The outline of this process is as follows: deficiency of factor XI → deceleration processes of formation of a plasma formation of prothrombin thromboplastin → → → fibrinogen thrombin → → fibrin clot retraction.
Symptoms and treatments obviously identical to those of hemophilia A and B.