Modern ideas about the amounts of food consumption, dietary and minerals, dietary fiber (cellulose) and water contained in the concept of a balanced diet.
A balanced diet - is not only optimal for human consumption of protein, fats, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals and water. Providing calorie needs, but also the optimal combination of food ingredients and certain foods, taking into account the person's age, lifestyle and work. Catering on the basis of the principles of balance is crucial to disease prevention.
An important condition for the assimilation of food is matching the chemical structure of its enzymatic kits organism. This rule must be followed at all levels of food assimilation and conversion of food substances in the gastrointestinal tract - in the processes of digestion and absorption, as well as the transport of food components to the tissues; in cells and subcellular structures - in the processes of cell separation and power exchange products from the body. Violation of this rule is the cause of many inherited and acquired diseases.
To ensure normal functioning of the body of the food must include substances called essential nutritional factors . These elements are not synthesized in the body at all or synthesized in small amounts, are essential for normal metabolism. These include:
The latter only in small quantities are synthesized by intestinal microflora.
Biological relations of individual nutrients in the human diet is extremely complicated. Much depends on the conditions of existence of the body, the effect of a number of external and internal factors.
Norms of nutrients and energy consumption based on the main provisions of the concept of a balanced diet and are due as follows:
In addition to basic nutrients include water and dietary fiber (previously called them bulking agents). The latter are now considered important. For 70 years of his life a person eats and drinks (in tonnes):
The principles of a balanced diet are not determined by a narrow group of substances, even if they are important for the body's vital functions. When evaluating a balanced and an unbalanced diet the doctor must focus on the whole range of essential nutritional factors. A balanced diet should help to maintain the health, well-being, the maximum life expectancy, disease prevention.
With regard to the physiological standards of nutrition, they are average values, which reflect the best needs of different population groups in nutrients and energy. They serve as important guides for planning the production of basic food products, the main criterion for the evaluation of actual nutrition.
Rational or balanced nutrition - is a physiologically balanced diet for healthy people, which fully complies with all the energy, plastic and biochemical needs of the human body. This type of food not only provides a constant internal environment of the human body, but also increases their resistance to adverse environmental factors. !!
The basis of any vital biological system - metabolism between it and the external environment. The daily diet should contain sufficient quantity and optimum ratio of all the necessary body substances. For the construction, repair cells and tissues, and energy metabolism of human body needs around 70 chemical compounds. human food should be chemically diverse, contain all the necessary nutrients in a certain ratio. Because chemically uniform unbalanced food disturbed metabolism in the body.
The theoretical basis of modern nutritional science is the concept of a balanced diet formulated by Academician of AMS AA Pokrovsky. According to this concept ensuring normal life is possible if the body supply necessary amount of energy, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, water in the right proportions for the organism.
A balanced diet - is the food that provides the body with necessary nutrients to him in well-defined proportions, correlations between the assimilation of food and the degree of the balance of its chemical composition. Based on the concept of a balanced diet based scheme for determining the nutritional value of certain foods, developed norms of human needs for nutrients. The diet of healthy person with an average level of energy expenditure optimally following relation proteins, fats and carbohydrates of 1: 1: 4 (5) allowing to satisfy the energy needs of the body and plastic.
When enhanced energy expenditure of the protein content of the diet should be reduced by increasing the amount of fat and carbohydrate: protein should constitute 12-13% of the total caloric content of the diet; fat - 30-50%. When heavy physical work protein content in the diet can be reduced to 11% fat - 33% (for eastern regions - 27-28, northern - 38-40%).
According to the concept of AA Pokrovsky ensure normal human life is possible not only when its supply of adequate amounts of energy and protein. But under strict ratios of essential nutritional factors, each of which belongs to a specific role in metabolism.
Power is considered to be normal when the food is covered by an adult needs. As a result, the body mass is constant, the body is functioning normally. A full diet of the child must provide a progressive weight gain rates and length of the body and the development of age-appropriate all its organs and systems. It is sufficient, or should I say - good nutrition can be countered by defective or inadequate.
The World Health Organization recommends the following to distinguish four basic forms of pathological conditions caused by poor hygiene in relation to food intake: malnutrition - consumption for a longer or shorter time to insufficient caloric amounts of food; specific form of failure - a condition caused by relative or absolute deficiency in the diet of one or more food materials; Overeating - intake of excessive amounts of food; imbalance - incorrect ratio in the diet necessary nutrients.
Giving hygienic assessment of nutrition, it is necessary to pay special attention to the content of those nutrients, the chemical structures of which are not synthesized by enzyme systems of the body. These substances, called essential factors of power, necessary for normal metabolism. And they include some amino - and polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and mineral elements.
Along with the concept of balance of power A. A.Pokrovsky established the law of correspondence of enzyme sets the body's chemical structure of the diet.
The population of our planet today is used to power hundreds of thousands of food products, of which turns even more culinary dishes. But all this variety of food made up of only one of various combinations of nutrients: vitamins, minerals, proteins, fats, carbohydrates. and it is natural that different foods have very different chemical composition. and none of them by itself does not contain the optimal ratio of fat and carbohydrates proteins